Digital Justice Study Guide
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Digital Justice: A Study and Action Guide

Worried about online hate speech and trolling, about fake news and social media causing real-world problems? Committed to ecological and social justice but not sure how this relates to anything digital? Looking to use digital technologies to build community and work for justice?


This compact, accessible guide unpacks a number of key digital justice issues and looks at how digital communication impacts marginalized peoples and groups. Case studies, facts and figures, discussion questions, and suggested readings offer tools for reflection and action.


For use by individuals or groups, the Study and Action Guide includes chapters on:

  • the digital divide
  • access to digital spaces
  • weaponization of digital resources
  • surveillance, censorship, and privacy
  • digitality and marginalized peoples


52 pages. Co-published by WACC and the World Council of Churches. November 2022.


Download the study guide (PDF 1.5 MB).

Resource List

Below is a listing of resources that appear in Digital Justice: A Study and Action Guide, along with some additional sources that may be useful for further reflections on digital justice.





Communication for Social Justice in a Digital Age. Manifesto from the WACC/WCC-sponsored symposium, 2021.


Digital Justice Manifesto: A Call to Own Our Digital Future. Bangalore: Just Net Coalition, November 2019.


The Great Transformation: A Field Guide for the Next Economy. Future Crunch, n.d.


“Impacts of Digital Transformation on Communities and Societies.” Ellen Ueberschär. Media Development, 1/2022.


International Symposium on Communication for Social Justice in a Digital Age. 13–15 September 2021.


A New Communications Paper for the 21st Century. Geneva: WCC Publications, 2022.


“The 9 Principles to Promote Social Justice in the Digital Age.” WACC Global, 3 June 2022. Video, 2:13.


“Our Digital Ecology.” Dean Dettloff. Media Development, 1/2017.


Revisiting MacBride: Communicative Justice Today. Media Development, 2/2021.


“Towards a Vision of Digital Justice.” Joint campaign of the WCC and WACC, 2022.


Wanted SDG 18. Media Development, 2/2019.



“Chapter 1: Digital Divides in a Global Society”


Communication Rights . . . Joining Up the Dots. Media Development, 1/2016.


“Democratizing the Public Sphere.” Philip Lee. Media Development, 2 August 2021.


Democratizing the Public Sphere. Media Development, 3/2021.


“Digital Media and Divide in Ethiopia.” Tedla Desta. Media Development, 2/2019.


“The Public Service Media and Public Service Internet Manifesto.” International Association for Media and Communication Research, 1 July 2021.


“Sexism and the Digital Divide.” WACC Global, 28 June 2022. Video, 3:26.


The Spirit of Truth in a Digital Age. Ecumenical Review 72, no. 2 (April 2020).



“Chapter 2: Accessing Digital Resources”


Claiming and Reclaiming the Digital World as a Public Space: Experiences and Insights from Feminists in the Middle East and North Africa. Oxfam International, November 2020.


Democratizing the Public Sphere. Media Development, 3/2021.


Expanding Public Communication Spaces. Media Development, 3/2020.


Expanding Shrinking Communication Spaces. Philip Lee and Lorenzo Vargas, eds. Toronto: The Centre for Communication Rights, 2020.


In What Ways Has the Digital Era Changed the Notion of Public Space? WACC Working Group on Public Space, September 2021.


“Participatory Video for Citizen Mobilisation in South Africa.” Tamara Plush. Media Development, 3/2015.


Presentation on Public Space at the Symposium on Communication for Social Justice in a Digital Age. Goran Buldioski, Director, Open Society Foundation, Berlin. Video, 35:10.



“Chapter 3: Weaponization of Digital Resources”


Breaking Down the Social Media Divides: A Guide for Individuals and Communities to Address Hate Online. WACC Europe, 2020.


“Counterspeech DOs and DON’Ts.” Dangerous Speech Project, 3 October 2017.


Double Standards in Social Media Content Moderation. Angel Diaz and Laura Hecht-Felella. Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, 4 August 2021.


“How to Spot Fake News.” Eugene Kiely and Lori Robertson., 18 November 2016.


“Simple Steps to Help Break Down Our Social Media Divides.” WACC Global, 6 October 2020. Video, 0:42.


Sticking to the Facts, Building Trust: Our Cure for Disinformation. Fondation Hirondelle, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2021.



“Chapter 4: Surveillance, Censorship, and Privacy”


“The Enemy on Your Wrist.” WACC Global, 6 July 2020.


“Internet Safety Checklist.” Cleveland (Tennessee) Metropolitan School District, n.d.


The Social Dilemma. Docudrama. Jeff Orlowski, director. Jeff Orlowski, Davis Coombe, and Vickie Curtis, writers. Exposure Labs, 2020.



Chapter 5: Digitality and Marginalized People


Delivering Together for Inclusive Development: Digital Access to Information and Knowledge for Persons with Disabilities. Alireza Darvishy, Deniz Eröcal, and Juliet Manning. UNESCO, 2019.


Enabling People’s Voices to Be Heard. Media Development, 3/2015.


Engaging with the Digital. Media Development, 4/2018.


Impact of New Technologies on Human Rights. 22nd EU-NGO Human Rights Forum, Final Report, December 2020.


Rethink IT Campaign. Greenpeace Media, 11 August 2016.


Who Makes the News? Global Media Monitoring Project. GMMP 2020–2021 Final Report. (See the “Highlights” section for a summary of findings.)